Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stocks ListRelated Stock Lists: Medical Specialties Medicine Biopharmaceutical Cancer Immunotherapy Leukemia Multiple Myeloma RTT Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Alzheimer's Autoimmune Diseases Autoimmunity Biotechnology Bone Marrow Transplant Cancer Immunotherapy Cancers Clinical Medicine Enzymes Hematologic Malignancies Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells. Symptoms may include feeling tired, shortness of breath, easy bruising and bleeding, and increased risk of infection. Occasionally, spread may occur to the brain, skin, or gums. As an acute leukemia, AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated.Risk factors include smoking, previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy, myelodysplastic syndrome, and exposure to the chemical benzene. The underlying mechanism involves replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemia cells, which results in a drop in red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells. Diagnosis is generally based on bone marrow aspiration and specific blood tests. AML has several subtypes for which treatments and outcomes may vary.AML typically is initially treated with chemotherapy, with the aim of inducing remission. People may then go on to receive additional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a stem cell transplant. The specific genetic mutations present within the cancer cells may guide therapy, as well as determine how long that person is likely to survive. Arsenic trioxide may be tried in cases that have recurred following usual treatments.In 2015, AML affected about one million people and resulted in 147,000 deaths globally. It most commonly occurs in older adults. Males are affected more often than females. AML is curable in about 35% of people under 60 years old and 10% over 60 years old. Older people whose health is too poor for intensive chemotherapy have a typical survival of 5–10 months. It accounts for roughly 1.8% of cancer deaths in the United States.